The Ultimate Machine- How does it work?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite
Machines work because all of the parts work together and react to certain forces placed upon them. If we want to maintain the integrity and strength of the Earth, we must first examine all of the parts and the forces. We then will ask the question, what can we do to help?
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When temperatures over the past 120 years were plotted, there is a definite rise in temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere that culminated into the “Dust Bowl” era of the 1930’s. After WWII the temperatures began to decline and continued throughout my childhood, but today we are seeing them rise again. With CO2 levels rising during this cooling period, many people have doubt in the scientific position of our warming coming from the impacts of CO2.
Common knowledge from observation tells us that the atmosphere uses both gravity and convection to move heat away from the Earth’s surface, it never comes down, and this creates even further skepticism and doubt in current science. It’s for these reasons, to better understand our world, that Curtis Wood decided to research our planets heating and cooling at his own expense and time, and soon it would lead down paths that he had never even considered.
Land, Sea, and Air
Scientists and Historians have worked for many years to develop theories concerning how the weather and earth interact. Observation of the atmosphere, CO2 levels, oceans, and all natural phenomena have been studied and found to create patterns on land, sea and in the air. Our plants and vegetation depend on all of these factors and are affected by the changes found throughout the years. Consequently, animals and humans are affected by all of the change as well. Concern for the future generations causes us to want to control the environment we live in, but our world is nothing to be controlled. Our Earth needs to be understood and nurtured to assure that all who come after us, will have a better place, a stable place in which to live.
When troubleshooting any machine a different perspective takes place that differs from normal scientific research. A thorough understanding of the basic physics and fundamentals is necessary, along with the interaction between the different components. It is up to the technician to place all the pieces into a distinctive order for an overall understanding of the machine. In this philosophy, all parts have a reason and purpose that must be explored in order to understand how they interact with one another. This approach is necessary when developing a “Theory of Operation.”
THE NATURE OF HEAT
Heat is energy, just like electricity, and both can store energy just like our cell phones. Both heat and electricity are power that can be converted to each other as seen here in the conversion tables. Understanding the basic fundamentals of heat is in understanding its directional flow. Without any forcing or work, heat flows from hot to cold and CANNOT flow from cold to hot, it’s one of the basic laws of Thermodynamics. Additionally, heat wants to find a state that Isaac Newton called, “Thermal Equilibrium.” It just wants to become one stable temperature, but with our sun and the planets rotation, this is never achieved but comes closest just before sunrise. This is why low temperatures at night are more relative than high temperatures that are transient, because this determines the level of storage maintained throughout the night. For this reason, preliminary data was focused on low temperatures. To learn more about heat click here.
EARTH’S HEAT SOURCE
The combination of both the Sun and the core supply all of the heat we feel on the surface of our world. The solar energy contacts an object where infrared radiation is converted to thermal radiation and is felt as warmth in the environment. This heat will build due to the restriction of outgoing energy where water vapor, CO2, methane and other gases resist heat flow and maintain this warmth through the evening hours. In order for the planet to increase in heat, then the earth and rock would have to rise in temperature. The atmosphere is very inefficient for heat storage and the key to understanding our world would be found in the way that our planet responds to the incoming solar radiance, and how human activity has and continues to alter it.
Joseph Fourier, inspired by Isaac Newton, was the first to calculate that the sun was not capable of heating our planet to the temperatures experienced and attributed this to a resistance in outgoing heat in the atmosphere. This was the basic fundamental question of Joseph Fourier’s research in 1824 and later in 1829, and this research is a continuation of his. He is also accredited with the analytical theory of heat that displays a direct correlation with heat, resistance and temperature with time as a period of measure. Inspired by these two men, I decided to continue on with his research and the question, “How do we heat to the levels we do if the sun is not capable of supplying all the heat we feel?”
Joseph Fourier proved that there is a direct correlation with resistance, heat, and temperature.
Within an environment, including the Earth, resistance is the key element when the heat source remains constant. By increasing resistance to solar radiance, temperatures decline, and by decreasing resistance, temperatures rise. The earth has multiple layers of resistance to incoming solar radiation and is identified by heat gain.
WATER AND COOLANT
Understanding water is another important characteristic of our planet that we use for transmitting heat. Water, unlike nearly every other element on Earth, expands when it freezes and rises to the surface. The oceans maintain a great amount of energy but their primary purpose is the same as a nuclear power plants chilling tower, they keep the core cool. This is observed by the temperatures of the deep-water oceans in comparison to the heat gradients beneath the land surface at the same depths.
In an environment such as the Earth, when there is a reduction in resistance from one source, and a rise in resistance that is greater than the loss, temperature will decline over time. This is what occurred post WWII through the 70’s. The massive amount of land converted to farmland created a heating effect that climaxed during the great "Dust Bowl." This was offset by the pollutants that gradually obscured the solar energy by industrial growth over thee decades preceding this event, even though CO2 levels continued to rise. In 1970 the EPA was enacted and the skies cleared and over the following decades we find ourselves back to an era of heating, again.
When summer arrives, the surface acts as a thermal shut off valve and the energy flow reverses. Earth's Thermal Switch is confirmed through through the thermodynamic laws and validated by data sets while Current Research confirms its impact and means of both measuring and monitoring its yearly alterations. The conduction of heat flow rising up from the core is shut down because the surface is now warmer than the subterranean, so it begins to build and stores this energy in the form of heat with no outlet, except for water. Water can move this heat through underground basins, swamps, lakes, and rivers. Anywhere we find the temperatures lower than the sub layer below, this area will act as an exhaust vent allowing it to release this heat.
In the summer months when the heat comes upwards from the core and comes in contact with water, it travels immediately towards the surface. A gravity feed boiler system is designed by this natural flow of heat. When it reaches the surface, there is no outlet because the surface temperatures are greater, so it remains boxed in. At night, all the vegetation on the surface opens up and allows the release of this subterranean heat in the process called transpiration. This process is not cooling the vegetation, but the Earth. As the water is drawn up it also acts as a purifier sinking bacteria and viruses into it membranes releasing clean fresh water. Where temperatures remain above 50 degrees at night throughout the year the vegetation remains intact and allows for continual year around venting.
FALL AND THE SEASONAL IMPACT
When fall comes this cycle ends and the leaves, along with grasses and brush fall lifeless to the surface shutting down this cycle. The energy then begins to oscillate building during the day and releasing at night as the sunlight and temperatures begin to decline. When the snow accumulates, air is trapped in the thatch that had fallen creating a thermopane effect providing insulation from the surface environment for life that has been driven below the surface.
During the winter months, the resistance in the soils limits the amount of energy that can be released during this cycle and the axial tilt limits the amount of time. The amount of energy is directly proportionate to the temperature differentiation's, the size of the area and the amount of time. As winters decline and summers grow longer there is a carry over of heat to the following season slowly increasing our Global Warming effect.
As the axial tilt brings about more sunlight the temperatures naturally begin to rise and the planet moves into the warmer mid-latitude jet streams. The energy from the core begins to rise and the solar energy begins to melt the snow and ice. This energy below and surface heat eventually meet until equilibrium is met. The thatch maintains a cool and damp environment in preparation for the life to emerge and keeps the raw soil from being exposed directly to the solar radiance until full bloom takes place. During this time, the energy will once again oscillate building during the day and releasing at night until the nighttime temperatures exceed the temperatures of the soil beneath. Once this is achieved the energy will be, “boxed in,” forcing the conduction of heat flow to be shut down, and the cycle repeats itself.
Minneapolis was a location selected for measurements and sources for multiple reasons. The International Airport is located at 44.8848° North. or within 8 miles of the half way point to the North Pole, and has continental climate conditions. Historical weather records reach back furthest in this region along this latitude along with personal knowledge of the area dating back generations.
Cycles and Seasons
Our Sun, Moon, rotation, elliptical orbit, everything about our planet works on cycles. We must first identify these cycles, how they work, and then we can assess how these cycles have altered. Our planet has four cycles, winter spring, summer and fall, just as our cars have four cycles, intake, compression, power and exhaust. One system with four cycles. With a car, altering any part of these cycles in any manner will affect the system performance, such as a plugged tailpipe or air cleaner. Cycles are present in all forms of equipment and machinery in our lives, and the same applies to our planet. Any alteration in the natural heating and cooling processes will result in altered weather patterns. Understanding these cycles, the physics involved, how they interact, along with historical alterations and events are researched and examined.
Science indicates that the earth's cooling in the Northern Hemisphere came from global dimming caused from the massive amounts of air pollutants in the atmosphere that increased resistance to the solar energy and accidentally cooled our planet from the 1940’s until the late 70’s. Enacting the EPA, the “Clean Air Act,” and many other regulations since 1970 would, over time, clear our skies.
What took years to build was also going to take several years to clear. During this time, the CO2 levels continued to rise, but the temperatures fell indicating that there was something greater than CO2 levels affecting our planets surface temperatures. This clearly removed CO2 as the primary catalyst as our warming mechanism and could only be seen as another feedback mechanism.
Current Science indicates that CO2 from emissions is the primary catalyst behind climate change, but logic said otherwise and for this reason we have not exhausted our efforts in identifying our planets heating and cooling. Today, the CO2 argument has become both political and financial. As a result, research into other possibilities is being hampered and suppressed. This research is solely independent, but utilizes vast amounts of research in many areas of Earth Science.
CO2 has cycles and is a warming mechanism, but the question remains as to the degree of impact, learn more about these cycles here.
EARTHS HEAT SHIELDS
The first layer that incoming solar radiation encounters is our magnetic field that is maintained by the flow of liquid iron and is seen in the exchange of energy that we see as lightning around the mid-latitude. The gravitation pull from the Sun and Moon that alters our tides also maintains this current around the core creating our magnetic field. To learn more about the laws of magnetism and pole direction, click here.
What energy makes it through the magnetic field will encounter the ozone layer. The ozone layer is responsible for maintaining our atmosphere and gasses within our biome preventing the gasses from escaping into space. This layer is maintained by the natural characteristic of water. At this elevation and pressure, the boiling point of water and freezing point match maintaining a stable environment for ozone to exist above this altitude. Learn more about water and the ozone here.
EARTH’S UNSEEN THERMAL SWITCH
There’s a stable temperate layer beneath our feet that remains approximately 50 to 55 degrees’ year around. It’s cooler in the summer and warmer in the winter and the core gives off heat 24/7. When the surface reaches a temperature above the temperature of this region beneath the surface the heat becomes boxed in and is stored until winter. It’s during this period of time when conduction of energy rising up from the core ends and begins to build conserving energy.
The heat is stored in the plates during the summer months and exhausts during the winters, but this is only the beginning to understanding this process. The axial tilt increases sunlight hours and in conjunction with the atmosphere controls this process, but the storage is in the tectonic plates above the Oceans and Seas. To see the data and to learn more about this, click here.
The main page for data and analysis is located here.
HEAT, PRESSURE AND VOLCANOES
Because of our limited history on temperatures, another source of data was necessary. Heating of a sealed container increases pressure, and the Earth has a crust around a molten layer of magma, so researching volcanic activity, specifically those that would cause global cooling at the levels of VEI-4 (volcanic eruption index) and above was researched. There would have to be some form of catalyst increasing our planets heat to cause such an event. This research displayed a direct correlation between periods of cooling and a decline in eruptions. This is observed most recently during the 1940’s to the 1970’s when cooling occurred, and also with both the Dalton and Maunder Minimums when the solar energy declined. Volcanic eruptions of this magnitude tend to accelerate in eruptions during or shortly after solar maximums and provide additional resistance to incoming solar radiance cooling the surface. Additionally, they expel vast amounts of CO2 into our atmosphere that will naturally stimulate vegetation growth. The book, "Decoding Earths Hidden Secrets" goes into great detail regarding these eruptions and historical timelines.
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION
With the exception of a few minor elements, all materials follow the laws of expansion and contraction. Even water does, until its tipping point. When elements heat, they expand, and when cooled, they contract. When the past 200 years of volcanoes were examined, a pattern developed. There were 117 total eruptions, four with unknown dates. This gave us a total of 114 eruptions to examine and of these, 72 occurred above the 10th parallel north. When taking the Philippines, Russia, Japan, Alaska, the United States, and south to the Caribbean excluding South America we find that 72% of these volcanoes occur during the first six months of the year, January through June.